Worldwide, there are more than 35,000 species of animals and plants, which are designated as protected species. If you want to own, transport or trade in protected animals or plants (or their parts or products), you must comply with the rules specified in the Convention of International Trade in Endangered Species in wild flora and fauna (CITES).
For some of these activities you require a CITES permit or CITES certificate. In the Netherlands, you can apply for these documents to the Netherlands Enterprise Agency (in Dutch). There are certain cases under which the conditions for the issuance of an import or export permit may be less strict. For instance when it concerns the exchange between scientists and scientific institutions, pre-regulation specimens, musical instruments or holiday souvenirs.