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Manure basins can be built both underground and overground. There are specific building regulations, which differ depending on the type of manure basin (in Dutch).
Livestock farmers must also comply with regulations with regard to the following environmental issues:
- odour nuisance - communities could be exposed to unwanted odours
- ammonia emissions - ammonia emissions can impact the environment
- soil pollution - manure can pollute soil if not used with care.
You should take measures to prevent and limit odour nuisance (in Dutch). Manure basins cannot be placed within 25 (for manure basins of at most 350 m2) metres of another livestock farm. Larger basins should be constructed at least 50 metres from another livestocj farm. They cannot be constructed within 50 metres (100 metres for larger basins) of a house or residential area.
Covering manure basins and reducing ammonia impact
You should cover your manure basin, as this will reduce ammonia emissions. You can use either covering constructions (such as a roof) or floating covers. A layer of straw does not suffice.
There are also rules (in Dutch) around areas that are specifically vulnerable for ammonia emissions. The provincial authorities determine which areas are vulnerable. Manure basins should be placed at sufficient distance from these areas:
- 150 metres for basins up to 350 m2
- 250 metres for basins from 350 m2 - 750 m2
Basins larger than 750 m2 require an all-in-one permit for environmental regulations. The minimum distance does not apply to basins smaller than 350 m2 if the basin was constructed before 1 February 1991.
Preventing soil pollution
You should prevent soil pollution (in Dutch). This means you have to make sure that your manure basin does not leak and no harmful substances can enter the soil underneath. You need a certificate of good quality for your basin. If you have a basin above ground, you may also need to have it assessed (in Dutch) periodically.