What is a private limited company or bv?
A private limited company, or in Dutch a besloten vennootschap (bv), is a business structure with legal personality. This means that the bv is generally speaking liable for any debts, rather than you as an individual. As a director, you are an employee of the bv and you act on its behalf. You can set up a Dutch bv with yourself as the only director/major shareholder (DGA) or with other individuals and/or legal entities.
A private limited company's equity is divided into shares that are owned by shareholders. They also hold ultimate power, but the company directors run the business on a day-to-day basis. A private limited company may appoint a supervisory board to monitor its board of directors (two-tier board), or the supervisors may be part of the board of directors (single-tier board).
In smaller bvs, the director is often also the only shareholder. In which case, he or she is then director and major shareholder, in Dutch directeur en grootaandeelhouder (DGA). You can also opt to have more directors, to share the responsibilities. There is no legal requirement to the number of directors for bvs.
Tool for choosing a Dutch legal structure
If you want to set up a business, but you are in two minds about which legal structure to choose, use our Tool for choosing a Dutch legal structure. It will guide you through some of the main considerations, such as liability, staff and taxes, and give you advice suited to your needs and wishes.
Setting up a bv
You cannot set up a bv yourself. You have to enlist the services of a civil-law notary, as there are legal requirements for setting up a private limited company. There are essentially four elements:
- Drawing up the statutes in a notarial deed: this is called incorporation;
- Making a deposit of €0.01 starting capital – cash or in kind;
- Registration in the KVK's Business Register (Handelsregister) – usually carried out by a civil-law notary (you remain personally liable until the registration is complete);
- Registration at the Dutch Tax and Customs Administration (Belastingdienst) - this also is usually taken care of by the civil-law notary.
Formation phase: bv in oprichting
It is possible to start trading before you have set up your private limited company, provided you are registered in the KVK's Business Register and a civil-law notary certifies to be handling the incorporation on your behalf. You may then operate as a 'private limited company under incorporation' (in Dutch: BV in oprichting or BV io).
Make sure you clearly state that you are acting on behalf of a 'BV io' when entering into any agreements with business partners. Any contracts are entered into as a legal entity in formation. You are personally liable for your actions on behalf of the BV io. Once the BV has been established, you can transfer contracts to your BV, subject to agreement from the other party.
Sometimes sole proprietorships append 'BV io' to their name because they're in the process of incorporating their business. Be aware that you are entering into an agreement as a sole proprietorship or eenmanszaak when you sign a contract in this phase.
The costs for starting and running a Dutch bv are:
- One-off registration fee for the KVK's Business Register
- €0.01 starting capital
- Civil-law notary’s fee (varies; could be anything between €500 and €1,000)
- Bookkeeping / accounting fee (varies; usually between €600 and €1,800 per year)
Like any business, bvs have to keep records. Bvs also have to produce annual accounts and deposit them with the KVK. Which data you have to submit depends on the company size.
UBO register: report your UBOs
Most businesses that register in the Dutch Business Register (including several European legal structures) have to include their 'ultimate beneficial owner(s)' or UBOs in the UBO register. See for more information the article The UBO register: questions and answers (KVK website).
Taxes and the private limited company
If you own at least 5% of your company's shares, then you have a 'substantial interest' (aanmerkelijk belang) and are referred to as a 'director and major shareholder' (DGA).
As a DGA, you'll have to pay income tax (inkomstenbelasting) on your salary and perhaps Dutch dividend tax (dividendbelasting). Paying yourself a salary from your BV is a relatively expensive option. A less expensive option (fiscally) is to pay out a dividend. Your BV will also have to pay corporation tax (vennootschapsbelasting, VPB) over its profits.
If the BV has an annual turnover of up to €20,000, you can make use of the small businesses scheme (KOR). Read more about the scheme here.
In 2022, the cabinet will adjust the first bracket for corporate income tax. As a result, a larger part of your profit falls under the low corporate income tax rate. Read more.
Customary salary scheme
If you are a director or major shareholder, the Tax and Customs Administration will not allow you to pay yourself an excessively low or zero salary. In Dutch, this is referred to as the gebruikelijkloonregeling or 'customary salary scheme' for directors and major shareholders. Your salary has to be in line with market levels, which is why the Ministry of Finance has set a number of criteria. You must pay yourself the highest of these amounts:
- 75% of the wages earned in the employment most similar to this one
- the pay earned by the best-payed employee in the company, or a company closely linked to your company
- a minimum gross annual salary of €48,000 (reference year: 2022).
If you can prove that the customary salary in your business sector is lower, you may ask the Tax Administration to set a lower salary requirement for you.
The 'payment test' – withdrawing equity from a Dutch bv
Directors have to perform a 'payment test' (uitkeringstoets) if they plan to withdraw equity from their BV. Doing so is only permitted if there are sufficient funds in the bv. This helps safeguard the business's financial position and helps ensure that creditors will be paid. An example of such a withdrawal is the payment of a dividend to the bv's shareholders.
The bv's board of directors has to protect its creditors' interests by assessing whether the bv will still be able to meet its financial obligations (accounts payable) for a period of approximately one year after the withdrawal. If so, the board of directors has to formally approve the withdrawal. If not, the board of directors is not authorised to proceed.
Directors who in hindsight make improper withdrawals can be held jointly and severally liable.
Not ditributing profit
The meeting of shareholders can decide not to distribute profits because it wants to strengthen the financial position of the bv. The profit then goes to the (general) reserve. If there is also a separate shareholders' agreement, it may contain provisions that deviate from the articles of association with regard to profit distribution.
Running a private limited company, you are in theory not personally liable for your business debts. However, banks generally ask that as a director and major shareholder you co-sign for loans as a private individual. In which case, you're then personally liable for repaying any loans.
You can also be held personally liable in the following instances if:
- You entered into overly ambitious agreements and knew (or could reasonably foresee) that the bv would be unable to fulfil its commitments.
- You failed to inform the Dutch Tax and Customs Administration in time that you were unable to pay your taxes and social security contributions.
- You were unable to pay your taxes and social security contributions as a result of mismanagement or negligence in the three years before reporting this to the Tax and Customs Administration.
- Your bv was declared bankrupt due to mismanagement or negligence in the three years leading up to this event. An example of 'mismanagement' is failure to file annual reports and accounts.
- You made payments that you knew could potentially jeopardize the bv's financial position.
If you have appointed another legal entity as director, for instance another private limited company, this does not exempt you from personal liability. All directors share who were involved in setting up the bv share personal liability for repaying loans, or the consequences of mismanagement.
Are you a director and major shareholder (DGA)? In this case banks often allow you to take out a private loan. This makes you personally liable. As a shareholder, your liability is only limited to the amount of your participation in the bv.
No more unlimited borrowing from 2023
From 2023 you can no longer borrow unlimited from your own BV. If the debts are higher than € 700,000, you will pay 26.9% income tax in box 2. There is an exception for financing your owner-occupied home. Read more.
Issuing new shares
In order to get extra money, the bv can issue more shares. The person who receives the shares must pay the bv for this. Please note: the articles of association of the bv may contain a so-called authorised capital. If so, this share capital indicates the maximum amount up to which additional shares can be issued.
A holding company is a private limited company (bv) that owns shares in another bv. You can structure bvs in this way to protect equity, for example profits or your pension provisions, from your business risk.
Directors may either jointly or individually sign contracts or perform certain legal acts on behalf of the company. This is stated in the articles of association. Directors can also give someone else power of attorney. This person may then also act on behalf of the company. It is not mandatory to register this person with the Business Register, however, it can be useful. For example, it is a way to inform your business partners about who is allowed to act on behalf of the company.
Personnel in the Netherlands
A bv can hire personnel. You have to pay Dutch payroll taxes and social contributions for your employees. If you are hiring employees for the first time, you must register as an employer with the Dutch Tax and Customs Authorities. You must also report this to KVK.
Dutch insurances and pension
As a director you are employed by the bv and covered by social insurance. There are exceptions, namely if you:
- Have 50% or more of the votes at the shareholders' meeting (possibly together with your spouse)
- and your immediate family members own two thirds or more of the shares
- cannot be fired against your will
In this case you can take out insurance yourself. Read more about insurances and pension as a sole proprietor.
Ending a Dutch bv
If you want to sell your company, then you can either sell your shares or divest the business from the bv by selling off its equipment, inventory, etc. As a DGA, you have to pay income tax on the proceeds of the sale of your shares. If you divest your business, then you have to pay corporation tax on the profit.
If a shareholder in the divesting bv is itself a bv, then this holding company theoretically pays no tax on the proceeds if it owns 5% or more of the shares. If you want to end the bv, a formal decision from the general meeting of shareholders is required. The bv then needs to pay off debts and dividend before it ceases to exist.
Changing the legal structure
You can change a Dutch bv to an nv, for example, if you want to be able to attract more capital. To change a bv into an nv, you must amend the articles of association and have a deed of conversion drawn up by a civil-law notary. Check with the civil-law notary what other steps you need to take. You can also change your bv into a sole proprietorship or general partnership (vof). For example, in case of disappointing profits.
Note: Be aware that for tax purposes, the Dutch Tax Administration views changes in legal structure as ending one business and starting another.
Good to know
A flex bv is a regular Dutch bv. The term became trending in 2012, when the process of starting a private limited company was simplified.
Do you still have questions about starting or running your private limited company in the Netherlands? Call KVK for help and advice: 0800-2117, or consult a financial adviser.
Statistics: private limited companies
Number of private limited companies.